Why the need for the Barbero-Immirzi field? Let me briefly explain. We saw that LQG in the Holst formulation faces the serious problem that unless the Barbero-Immirzi parameter is promoted to a field, the three-dimensional action with the Barbero-Immirzi parameter:

cannot admit a 4-D uplifting of the reduced 3-D gauge-free spacetime compactified action:

to the 4-D the Holst action:

and that is because the total 3-D action with the Barbero-Immirzi parameter:

is invariant under rescaling symmetry and translational symmetry, which destroy the time-gauge accessibility of the theory and 4-D-uplifting. Let us see whether and how promoting the Barbero-Immirzi parameter to a field and using the Nieh–Yan topological invariant can ameliorate our crises. In Lagrangian Holst theory, a Hilbert–Palatini action can always be generalized to contain the Holst term and promotes the Barbero–Immirzi parameter to a field via:

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