• Weyl-Integrable Geometry, General Relativity, and the Scalar-Tensor Duality

    In this post, I shall discuss certain relations between Weyl-integrable geometry, General Relativity, and the scalar-tensor duality. The principal motivation is that the gauge group up-lift from the Weyl fiber bundle onto the renormalization Lie algebra can handle central infrared paradoxes that GR faces given that the scalar-tensor duality gives a description of the gravitational field in terms of a space-time metric and a scalar field with an analytically closed Einstein-Riemann frame that geometrically embeds standard inflationary cosmological models as well as relativistic quantum geometric ones. We start with the following action for a scalar-tensor theory of gravity in the Jordan vacuum-frame:

    \begin{array}{c}S = \frac{1}{{16\pi }}\int {{d^4}} x\sqrt { - g} \left\{ {\Phi \Re + } \right.\\\left. {\Phi \Re + \frac{{\tilde \omega \left( \Phi \right)}}{\Phi }{g^{\mu \nu }}\Phi {,_\mu }\Phi {,_\nu } - \tilde V\left( \Phi \right)} \right\}\end{array}

    \Re the Ricci scalar, {\tilde \omega \left( \Phi \right)} a function of the scalar field \Phi and {\tilde V\left( \Phi \right)} is a scalar potential. The action in terms of the redefined field \varphi = - {\rm{In}}\left( {G\Phi } \right) reduces to:

    S = \int {{d^4}} x\sqrt { - g} \left\{ {{e^{ - \varphi }}\left[ {\frac{\Re }{{16\pi G}} + \omega \left( \varphi \right){g^{\mu \nu }}{\varphi _{,\mu }}{\varphi _{,\nu }}} \right] - V\left( \varphi \right)} \right\}

    Recalling that the Weyl-integrable spacetime action in this frame is given by:

    S = \int {{d^4}} x\sqrt { - g} \left( {\Re + \xi {\nabla ^w}_\alpha {\phi ^\alpha } + {e^{ - 2\phi }}{L_m}} \right)

    with the Weylian connection and Riemannian curvature satisfying:

    {\nabla ^w}_\alpha {\phi ^{,\alpha }} = {\phi ^{,\alpha .}}_{,\alpha } - 2{\phi ^\alpha }{\phi _\alpha }

    \Re = \bar \Re - 3{\diamondsuit ^{d'Ale}}\phi + \frac{3}{2}{\phi _\alpha }{\phi ^\alpha }

    as well as the Palatini variational properties of \omega \left( \varphi \right) and V\left( \varphi \right):

    \left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{\omega \left( \varphi \right) = {{\left( {16\pi G} \right)}^{ - 1}}\tilde \omega \left[ {\varphi \left( \Phi \right)} \right]}\\{V\left( \varphi \right) = {{\left( {16\pi G} \right)}^{ - 1}}\tilde V\left( {\varphi \left( \Phi \right)} \right)}\end{array}} \right.

    thus yielding the affine connection:

    {\nabla ^w}_\mu {g_{\alpha \beta }} = {\varphi _{,\mu }}{g_{\alpha \beta }}

    which is the characteristic non-metricity condition for a Weyl-integrable geometry

  • The Lindblad Master Equation, Feynman-Kac Formula, and the Measurement Problem

    Any adequate account of how micro-causality and quantum coherence can explain the emergent-property of spacetime and how the Wheeler-DeWitt problem of time can be solved must incorporate a theory of how the Lindblad master equation solves the Markov quantum fluctuation problem as well as showing how the quantum Jarzynski-Hatano-Sasa relation can be homologically defined globally for both, Minkowski space and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker generalized Cartan space-times. This is a step towards those goals. Consider a wave-function \left| {{\psi _t}^{S,m,c}} \right\rangle and the entropic quantum entanglement relation of the total system consisting of 'S', 'm' and the quantum-time measuring clock 'c' subject to Heisenberg's UP. It follows then that the probability that any given initial state \left| {\psi _t^{S,m,c}} \right\rangle evolves for a time T that undergoes N jumps during intervals \delta t centered at times {t_1},...,{t_N} is given by:

    \begin{array}{l}{\left( {2\delta t{\kappa ^2}/G} \right)^N}{\rm{Tr}}\left\{ {{e^{ - i{{\tilde H}_{eff}}\left( {T - {t_N}} \right)}}} \right. \cdot \\\hat a{e^{ - i{{\hat H}_{eff}}}}\left( {{t_N} - {t_{N - 1}}} \right)\hat a...\,\hat a{e^{ - i{{\hat H}_{eff}}t}}\\ \times \left| {\psi _t^{S,m,c}} \right\rangle \left\langle {\psi _t^{S,m,c}} \right|{e^{i{{\tilde H}^\dagger }_{eff}{t_1}}}{{\hat a}^\dagger }...\,\left. {{{\hat a}^\dagger }{e^{i{{\tilde H}^\dagger }_{eff}\left( {T - {t_N}} \right)}}} \right\}\end{array}

    So, the master equation:

    \begin{array}{l}{{\dot \rho }_{00}} = - i\left[ {{{\hat H}_0},{\rho _{00}}} \right] + \frac{{2{\kappa ^2}}}{G}\hat a{\rho _{00}}{{\hat a}^\dagger }\\ - \frac{{{\kappa ^2}}}{G}{{\hat a}^\dagger }\hat a{\rho _{00}} - \frac{{{\kappa ^2}}}{G}{\rho _{00}}{{\hat a}^\dagger }\hat a\end{array}

    is valid iff the Markovian approximation is faithful and valid only on time-scales longer than 1/{\Gamma _1}, hence the jump occurs during an interval \delta t \sim 1/{\Gamma _1} centered on {t_i}. Therefore, with the Hamiltonian:

    {\hat H_I} = \kappa \left( {{{\hat a}^\dagger } \otimes \hat b + \hat a \otimes {{\hat b}^\dagger }} \right)

    where \left( {\hat a,\hat b} \right);\left( {{{\hat a}^\dagger },{{\hat b}^\dagger }} \right) are the lowering/raising operators for the system and output mode respectively, it follows that the total system satisfies the master equation:

    \begin{array}{c}\dot \rho = - i\left[ {\hat H,\rho } \right] + {\Gamma _1}\hat b\rho {{\hat b}^\dagger } - \frac{{{\Gamma _1}}}{2}{{\hat b}^\dagger }\hat b\rho \\ - \frac{{{\Gamma _1}}}{2}\rho {{\hat b}^\dagger }\hat b + {\Gamma _2}{\sigma _z}\rho {\sigma _z} - {\Gamma _2}\rho \\ \equiv L_s^L\rho \end{array}

    where the Pauli operator {\sigma _z} acts on the output mode and L_s^L is the Liouville superoperator. Given that it is a linear equation, it has a solution given as:

    \rho ({t_2}) = \exp \left\{ {L_s^L\left( {{t_2} - {t_1}} \right)} \right\}\rho ({t_1})

    and so the evolution of the density matrix {\rho _t} is given by the Lindblad master equation:

    \begin{array}{l}{\partial _t}{\rho _t} = - i\left[ {{H_t},{\rho _t}} \right] + \sum\limits_{i = 1}^I {\left( {{V_i}{\rho _t}V_i^\dagger } \right.} \\\left. { - \frac{1}{2}V_i^\dagger {V_i}{\rho _t} - \frac{1}{2}{\rho _t}V_i^\dagger {V_i}} \right)\end{array}